Glaucoma treatment



What is ocular tension?

The eye is a closed structure with an internal pressure under normal conditions ranging from 10 to 20 mm Hg. This pressure is due to the amount of liquid (aqueous humour) present inside the eye. When a larger than normal amount of aqueous humour is produced or when it is impeded from draining from the eye, the intraocular pressure rises.

Ocular tension (pressure) has nothing to do with blood pressure. 

Ocular tension does not rise because your force your sight or because of working with computers, sewing, etc. Likewise, it does not rise under situations of stress or nervousness.

When ocular tension rises above 20mm Hg, we talk about Ocular hypertension.

What is glaucoma?

The glaucoma is a chronic illness in which as a result of an ocular hypertension maintained for many years goes injuring progressively the optic nerve, that is the responsible for collecting the image since the eye and to carry it to the brain.

The glaucoma is a very frequent illness. From a 2% to a 3% of people over 40 years they suffer it. Nevertheless, the majority of them does not know it, since initially the illness does not present no symptom.

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Only when the illness is found in a phase very advanced comes affect in a serious way the vision of the patient. This form of glaucoma is the one that is known like chronic glaucoma or of open angle, and is, with difference, the most frequent one.

Nevertheless, other rarer forms of glaucoma exist:

  • Sharp glaucoma of narrow angle: It studies with an increment of the ocular abrupt and intense tension. It is given in patients with certain anatomical characteristics in the eye, that the predispone to that in a moment given a blockade of the exit of the watery humor be produced, with what the increment of the pressure is very fast. As opposed to the patients with chronic glaucoma, the sharp glaucoma studies with intense ocular pain, accompanied by queasiness and blurry vision. It is what was known old as "pain of the nail". This type of glaucoma supposes a sanitary emergency and tried immediate way.
  • Congenital glaucoma: It is given in some newborns.
  • Other types of glaucoma: Other forms of associated glaucoma to diabetes exist, traumatisms, medicines, etc.

How is it diagnosed?

The best treatment is derived from a diagnosis made as early as possible. 

In his surgery, the ophthalmologist measures your intraocular pressure using an instrument called a tonometer. In addition he examines the ocular fundus (back of the eye) to verify the state of the optic nerve...

In cases where the specialist suspects the early stages of the disease may be present, a more exact test, called computerised perimetry is carried out.

How is it treated?

Currently, the glaucoma diagnosed in a premature way and with an adequate processing has no reason to bring with himself a visual deterioration:

  • Medical treated: It is the one that initially is established in most of the patients. It is based on the use of antihypertensive eye drops, that the person applies daily. He is a matter of processing that the person should utilize during all its life, since if they are abandoned, the tension be elevated again. From time to time revisions should be carried out to verify that the processing is being really effective.
  • Laser: If the medical processing does not function, in some cases the laser is employed to facilitate the exit of the watery humor since the eye. They are the processing known as trabeculoplastia and iridectomía.
  • Surgery: It is utilized when the previous measures have turned out ineffective. The employed technique is known like "trabeculectomia", and supposes the creation of a more extensive way of escape of the watery humor out of the eye

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